11. Which is the smallest ocean in the world?
The Artic Ocean is the smallest ocean in the world with a total surface area of 5,105,700 sq. miles.

12. What is meant by the term, Chinaman, in cricket?
The term, Chinaman, denotes an off break bowled by a left-handed bowler to a right-handed batsman. The expression is said to have derived from the blower Ellis Achong, who although played for the West Indies, was actually Chinese and who practiced this kind of bowling, although he was not the first to do so. This term should not be confused with the other cricket term, Googly.

13. What is ESP?
ESP means extra sensory perception, i.e., perception or communication outside of normal sensory activity, as telepathy and clairvoyance.

14. What is the meaning of ‘Ashes’ in the Cricket world?
The term, ‘Ashes’ pertains to the mythical prize contended for in the Cricket Test matches between England and Australia. When England was beaten at the Oval in 1882 a mock obituary of English cricket appeared in the Sporting Times. The ashes of a burnt cricket stump were subsequently placed in an urn and given to the English team when it next won.

15. What is Bermuda Triangle?
The triangular sea area between Bermuda, Florida and Puerto Rico is called the Bermuda Triangle where the currents are very strong. The area gained notoriety in the 1960s on account of the mysterious disappearance of numerous ships and aircraft without any trace of wreckage.

16. What are the signs and symptoms of cancer?
The most common warning signals of cancer are: change in bowel and bladder habits; a sore that does not heal; unusual bleeding and discharge; thickening of lump in the breast or elsewhere; indigestion or difficulty in swallowing; obvious change in a wart or mole and nagging cough or hoarseness. These signs can be caused by cancer or by a number of other problems. They are not a sure sign of cancer. It is always desirable to see a doctor if any problem persists as long as two weeks. None should wait for the symptoms to become painful; pain is not an early sign of cancer.

17. What is the base of Ayurvedic system of medicine?
The universe is composed of the five elements or pancha mahabhutas. These combine into three doshas or bioenergetic forces that determine human health and physical constitution. Long before the Western world and WHO talked in terms of health as a holistic concept, the texts of Ayurveda written over 3,500 years ago spoke of treating an individual as a whole, not as a group of individual parts. Ayurveda encompasses the whole human being: his mind, body and spirit. According to this ancient system of medicine, a good, balanced constitution is the best shield against the onslaught of medicine thus tries to prevent diseases by working with the constitution of the individual or by balancing the three doshas, namely vata, pitta and kapha. The tridoshas endicate the kind of illnesses an individual may be prone to and may also determine one’s physical appearance, cravings for food and the like. Where the three doshas work in harmony, perfect health reigns supreme.

18. How harmful is caffeine?
Caffeine is a type of chemical, known as an alkaloid, which occurs in several kinds of plant. Biologists do not fully understand why plants such as coffee and tea make caffeine, but one theory is that it has evolved as a natural herbicide to help growing shrubs overcome competing plants.
The effects of caffeine vary. Women retain caffeine in their body for much longer when they are pregnant, where as smokers eliminate caffeine twice as quickly as non-smokers.
The most noticeable effect is to stimulate the nervous system; people whop are sensitive to caffeine will certainly sleepless if they drink ordinary coffee before going to bed. However, the body can become habituated to caffeine and many regular coffee drinkers can take a cup or two in the evening without their sleep being disturbed.
Other physiological effects of caffeine include stimulating the production of urine and susceptible to irregular heart rhythms and palpitation find that these are triggered by caffeine.
Caffeine dose not accumulate in the body, so its effects are short-lived. But it has been accused at one time or another of contributing to most of the serious health problems of the 20th century, including heart disease, cancer and birth defects.

19.Why a convex mirror is used by the motorists to see the road behind them?
Motorists to get a view of the traffic behind the vehicle always use convex mirrors. The image formed by a convex mirror is always erect and diminished in size thus producing a large field of view. It may be noted that with the help of convex mirror it is not always possible for the driver to get a correct idea about the size and distance of the object.

20. Who was the founder of Buddhism? What are the main precepts of Buddhism?
Siddhartha, also called Gautama, was the founder of Buddhism. He was a Kshatriya prince of Saka clan. He lived between 576 B.C. and 480 B.C.
The four basic doctrines of Buddhism are : (i) man suffers from one life to the next (ii) The origin of suffering is craving, the desire for pleasure, possession and cessation of pain. (iii) The way to non-attachment is the eight-fold path of right conduct, right effort, right intention, right meditation, right mindfulness, right speech and right views.
There is no God in Buddhism to judge, protect or punish. There is only one inexorable law of dharma, of cause and effect, which determines the individual’s fate. Buddhism preaches ahimsa (non-violence), and non-cruelty towards all living beings.

Source: Competition Success review

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